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Question: Mastering Chemistry for Chemistry (11th Edition)

Mastering Chemistry for Chemistry (11th Edition) 

Transcribed text: Mastering Chemistry for Chemistry (11th Edition) 

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Step-by-step solution

  1. Step 1 of 5 a) The number of valence electrons in C is 4, H is 1. So the number of valence electrons in ethane () is 14, in ethylene () is 12 and in acetylene () is 10. The Lewis structures of and are
  2. Step 2 of 5 b) Each carbon atom in ethane molecule has four electron domains. The arrangement of four electron domains is tetrahedral and the hybridization that gives this geometry is. Each carbon atom in ethene molecule has three electron domains (double bond is counted as single electron domain). The arrangement of three electron domains is trigonal planar and the hybridization that gives this geometry is. Each carbon atom in acetylene molecule has two electron domains (double bond is counted as single electron domain). The arrangement of two electron domains is linear and the hybridization that gives this geometry is.
  3. Step 3 of 5 c) The molecules ethene and acetylene have trigonal planar and linear geometry, so they are planar.
  4. Step 4 of 5 d) The C atom (each) in ethane molecule has four electron domains with hybridization, so these hybrid orbitals form three C – H bonds. The two carbon hybrid orbitals form a C – C bond between them. So the molecule has 7bonds (6 C – Hbonds and C – C bond) and 0bonds. The C atom (each) in ethene molecule has three electron domains with hybridization, so these hybrid orbitals form two C – H bonds. The two carbon hybrid orbitals form a C – C bond and C – C bond between them. So the molecule has 5bonds (4 C – H bonds and C – C bond) and 1bond. The C atom (each) in acetylene molecule has two electron domains with hybridization, so these hybrid orbitals form a C – Hbond. The two carbon hybrid orbitals form a C – C bond and two C – Cbond between them. So the molecule has 3bonds (2 C – H bonds and C – Cbond) and 2bonds. Molecule -bonds -bonds Ethane 7 0 Ethene 5 1 Acetylene 3 2
  5. Step 5 of 5 e) The hybridization of analogs will be same as that of the carbon compounds in all the molecules, astends to have similar properties like that of same group element C. As Silicon contains larger number of bonding atomic orbitals and atomic orbitals than C (that is above in same group), it doesn’t form strong bonds in . Thus, silicon doesn’t form molecules.

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